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authentication: it means to identify who is the user
authorization: it means what rights does user have

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Authentication
You only login with your user credentials, which if stolen by other can be used to login to impersonate the user for malicious activity.

MFA (MultiFactor Authentication)
It mainly checks for 3 kinds of verification as follows

  1. Something you know (like password / pin code etc..)
  2. Something you have (like mobile device, code generator etc..)
  3. Something you are (like fingerprint, iris scan etc..)
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Authentication: Using user credentials like Id & password to authenticate the user.

Multifactor Authentication (MFA): combines two or more independent credentials.

The goal of MFA is to create a layered defense and make it more difficult for an unauthorized person to access a target such as a physical location, computing device, network or database. If one factor is compromised or broken, the attacker still has at least one more barrier to breach before successfully breaking into the target.

Examples of MFA: OTP, Biometrics, Swiping card, PIN,etc
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Multifactor authentication uses more then one type of authentication to verify user that is something unique to the user like retina,fingerprint etc.

Authentication uses only user password or username for verification.

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