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The digital forensic process has the following five basic stages:

  1. Identification – the first stage identifies potential sources of relevant evidence/information (devices) as well as key custodians and location of data.
  2. Preservation – the process of preserving relevant electronically stored information (ESI) by protecting the crime or incident scene, capturing visual images of the scene and documenting all relevant information about the evidence and how it was acquired.
  3. Collection – collecting digital information that may be relevant to the investigation. Collection may involve removing the electronic device(s) from the crime or incident scene and then imaging, copying or printing out its (their) content.
  4. Analysis – an in-depth systematic search of evidence relating to the incident being investigated. The outputs of examination are data objects found in the collected information; they may include system- and user-generated files. Analysis aims to draw conclusions based on the evidence found.
  5. Reporting – firstly, reports are based on proven techniques and methodology and secondly, other competent forensic examiners should be able to duplicate and reproduce the same results.

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